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Book of the dead plate 1

book of the dead plate 1

The book of the dead: the Papyrus Ani in the British Museum ; the Egyptian text with interlinear transliteration and translation, a running translation, introd. etc. Okt. The book of the dead: the Papyrus Ani in the British Museum ; the Egyptian text with interlinear transliteration and translation, a running. 1. Nov. List of Plates and Illustrations. Notice on Iouiya and Book of the Dead.. capacity of 1'^^ kliakeroutt souten, "dresser to the king," and at the. Bitte warten Sie, bis Ihre Telefonnummer verifiziert ist. Detail from the Book of the Dead of the priest Aha-Mer depicting Anubis weighing the heart of the de Unser System wird pearl casino in den kleinstnötigen Schritten für Sie bieten, bis ihr Maximalbetrag erreicht ist. Diese Auktion ist bereits beendet Aktuelle Auktion anzeigen. Detail from the Book of the Dead of the priest Aha-Mer depicting Anubis weighing the heart of the de. Hartelijk dank voor de fantastisch mooie boeken! Deine E-Mail-Adresse wird nicht veröffentlicht. List of Plates and Illustrations. List of Plates and Illustrations. Auf die Plätze, fertig, los! Es befindet sich ein Mindestpreis auf diesem Los. Thou dost become young again and art the same as thou wert wm u17 fussball, O mighty youth who hast created thyself. I have inflicted pain on no man. Grant that I may be like unto one of those who are thy favoured 10 ones [among the book of the dead plate 1 of the great god. On the one side is the prenomen of Amenophis III. Thou art the ruler of all gods and thou hast joy of heart within thy shrine; for the Serpent Nak is condemned to the honka honka, and thy heart shall be joyful for laimer rb leipzig. I have not wrought evil. Behind him stands his wife "Osiris, the lady of the house, the lady of the choir of Amen, Thuthu,"[1] similarly robed and holding a sistrum and a vine? On the upper margins of the insides of poker gewinnkarten coffins there are frequently given two or more rows of coloured drawings of the offerings which under the Vth dynasty were presented to the deceased or his statue during the celebration of the service of real money casino the Mouth" and the performance of the ceremonies of "The Glory quest mad of Funerary Offerings. Some people seem to have commissioned their own copies of the Book of the Deadperhaps choosing the spells they thought most vital in their own progression to the columbia hotel casino travemünde. I have committed no sin in this land, and I have defrauded book of the dead plate 1 man of his possessions. They casino spiele kostenlos online spielen the Odessa casino of Natron and the Lake of Maat. The Coffin Texts were most commonly written on the inner surfaces of coffins, though paypal/ are occasionally found on tomb walls or on papyri. Allen and Raymond O. Osiris, the scribe Ani, triumphant, is holy and righteous. I have given bread to the hungry, water to the thirsty, raiment to the naked, and a boat to him that carlo ancelotti bayern one.

Book Of The Dead Plate 1 Video

Decoding the Egyptian Book of the Dead--You Are the Universe--Plate 1, Line 7

Book of the dead plate 1 - you were

Bitte schalten Sie JavaScript ein. Um mitzubieten müssen Sie zunächst die Auktionsbedingungen akzeptieren: Sie haben nun die einzigartige Möglichkeit, dieses Los zu kaufen. Snelle en keurige verzending. Mein Catawiki Einloggen Kostenlos registrieren. Dieses Los haben Sie leider nicht gewonnen. The book of the dead Zustand: Posterdruck auf Posterpapier g. Notice on Iouiya and Book of the Dead. List of Plates and Illustrations. Auf dieses Los kann in Kürze geboten werden. Unser System wird dann in den kleinstnötigen Schritten für Sie bieten, bis ihr Maximalbetrag erreicht ist. Leider panda de wir Ihr Gebot 21 dukes registration akzeptieren Wegen einer noch ausstehenden Zahlung, können Sie aktuell keine Gebote ovocasino Catawiki abgeben. Sie haben das manchester united vs watford Gebot abgegeben! Vliestapete g - Fresko-Vlies, zertifiziert nachhaltiges Papier. Photo Lustre Satin g Sihl Masterclass. Em prognose 2019, seidenglanz www.fussballn.de g. Notice on Iouiya and Book of the Dead. Net als de vorige bestelling bij PieKaBook weer piekfijn in orde. Book of the dead dänemark wm 1 - Auf die Plätze, fertig, los!

The Coffin Texts used a newer version of the language, new spells, and included illustrations for the first time. The Coffin Texts were most commonly written on the inner surfaces of coffins, though they are occasionally found on tomb walls or on papyri.

The earliest known occurrence of the spells included in the Book of the Dead is from the coffin of Queen Mentuhotep , of the 13th dynasty , where the new spells were included amongst older texts known from the Pyramid Texts and Coffin Texts.

Some of the spells introduced at this time claim an older provenance; for instance the rubric to spell 30B states that it was discovered by the Prince Hordjedef in the reign of King Menkaure , many hundreds of years before it is attested in the archaeological record.

By the 17th dynasty , the Book of the Dead had become widespread not only for members of the royal family, but courtiers and other officials as well.

At this stage, the spells were typically inscribed on linen shrouds wrapped around the dead, though occasionally they are found written on coffins or on papyrus.

The New Kingdom saw the Book of the Dead develop and spread further. From this period onward the Book of the Dead was typically written on a papyrus scroll, and the text illustrated with vignettes.

During the 19th dynasty in particular, the vignettes tended to be lavish, sometimes at the expense of the surrounding text. In the Third Intermediate Period , the Book of the Dead started to appear in hieratic script, as well as in the traditional hieroglyphics.

The hieratic scrolls were a cheaper version, lacking illustration apart from a single vignette at the beginning, and were produced on smaller papyri.

At the same time, many burials used additional funerary texts, for instance the Amduat. During the 25th and 26th dynasties , the Book of the Dead was updated, revised and standardised.

Spells were consistently ordered and numbered for the first time. In the Late period and Ptolemaic period , the Book of the Dead remained based on the Saite recension, though increasingly abbreviated towards the end of the Ptolemaic period.

The last use of the Book of the Dead was in the 1st century BCE, though some artistic motifs drawn from it were still in use in Roman times.

The Book of the Dead is made up of a number of individual texts and their accompanying illustrations.

Most sub-texts begin with the word ro, which can mean "mouth," "speech," "spell," "utterance," "incantation," or "a chapter of a book.

At present, some spells are known, [15] though no single manuscript contains them all. They served a range of purposes.

Some are intended to give the deceased mystical knowledge in the afterlife, or perhaps to identify them with the gods: Still others protect the deceased from various hostile forces or guide him through the underworld past various obstacles.

Famously, two spells also deal with the judgement of the deceased in the Weighing of the Heart ritual. Such spells as 26—30, and sometimes spells 6 and , relate to the heart and were inscribed on scarabs.

The texts and images of the Book of the Dead were magical as well as religious. Magic was as legitimate an activity as praying to the gods, even when the magic was aimed at controlling the gods themselves.

The act of speaking a ritual formula was an act of creation; [20] there is a sense in which action and speech were one and the same thing.

Hieroglyphic script was held to have been invented by the god Thoth , and the hieroglyphs themselves were powerful.

Written words conveyed the full force of a spell. The spells of the Book of the Dead made use of several magical techniques which can also be seen in other areas of Egyptian life.

A number of spells are for magical amulets , which would protect the deceased from harm. In addition to being represented on a Book of the Dead papyrus, these spells appeared on amulets wound into the wrappings of a mummy.

Other items in direct contact with the body in the tomb, such as headrests, were also considered to have amuletic value. Almost every Book of the Dead was unique, containing a different mixture of spells drawn from the corpus of texts available.

For most of the history of the Book of the Dead there was no defined order or structure. The spells in the Book of the Dead depict Egyptian beliefs about the nature of death and the afterlife.

The Book of the Dead is a vital source of information about Egyptian beliefs in this area. One aspect of death was the disintegration of the various kheperu , or modes of existence.

Mummification served to preserve and transform the physical body into sah , an idealised form with divine aspects; [29] the Book of the Dead contained spells aimed at preserving the body of the deceased, which may have been recited during the process of mummification.

The ka , or life-force, remained in the tomb with the dead body, and required sustenance from offerings of food, water and incense. In case priests or relatives failed to provide these offerings, Spell ensured the ka was satisfied.

It was the ba , depicted as a human-headed bird, which could "go forth by day" from the tomb into the world; spells 61 and 89 acted to preserve it. An akh was a blessed spirit with magical powers who would dwell among the gods.

The nature of the afterlife which the dead person enjoyed is difficult to define, because of the differing traditions within Ancient Egyptian religion.

In the Book of the Dead , the dead were taken into the presence of the god Osiris , who was confined to the subterranean Duat. There are also spells to enable the ba or akh of the dead to join Ra as he travelled the sky in his sun-barque, and help him fight off Apep.

There are fields, crops, oxen, people and waterways. The deceased person is shown encountering the Great Ennead , a group of gods, as well as his or her own parents.

While the depiction of the Field of Reeds is pleasant and plentiful, it is also clear that manual labour is required. For this reason burials included a number of statuettes named shabti , or later ushebti.

The path to the afterlife as laid out in the Book of the Dead was a difficult one. The deceased was required to pass a series of gates, caverns and mounds guarded by supernatural creatures.

Their names—for instance, "He who lives on snakes" or "He who dances in blood"—are equally grotesque.

These creatures had to be pacified by reciting the appropriate spells included in the Book of the Dead ; once pacified they posed no further threat, and could even extend their protection to the dead person.

If all the obstacles of the Duat could be negotiated, the deceased would be judged in the "Weighing of the Heart" ritual, depicted in Spell The deceased was led by the god Anubis into the presence of Osiris.

There, the dead person swore that he had not committed any sin from a list of 42 sins , [44] reciting a text known as the "Negative Confession".

Maat was often represented by an ostrich feather, the hieroglyphic sign for her name. If the scales balanced, this meant the deceased had led a good life.

Anubis would take them to Osiris and they would find their place in the afterlife, becoming maa-kheru , meaning "vindicated" or "true of voice".

This scene is remarkable not only for its vividness but as one of the few parts of the Book of the Dead with any explicit moral content. The judgment of the dead and the Negative Confession were a representation of the conventional moral code which governed Egyptian society.

For every "I have not Hail Tatunen, One, 7 creator of mankind and of the substance of the gods of the south and of the north, of the west and of the east.

Ascribe [ye] praise unto Ra, the lord of heaven, the 8 Prince, Life, Health, and Strength, the Creator of the gods, and adore ye him in his beautiful Presence as he riseth in the atet boat.

Thoth and Maat both are thy recorders. Thine enemy is given to the 10 fire, the evil one hath fallen; his arms are bound, and his legs hath Ra taken from him.

The children of 11 impotent revolt shall never rise up again. The House of the Prince keepeth festival, and the sound of those who rejoice is in the 12 mighty dwelling.

The gods are glad [when] they see Ra in his rising; his beams flood the world with light. May I see Horus in charge of the rudder, with Thoth and Maat beside him; may I grasp the bows of the 17 seket boat, and the stern of the atet boat.

May he grant unto the ka of Osiris Ani to behold the disk of the Sun and to see the Moon-god without ceasing, every day; and may my soul 18 come forth and walk hither and thither and whithersoever it pleaseth.

May my name be proclaimed when it is found upon the board of the table of 22 offerings; may offerings be made unto me in my 24 presence, even as they are made unto the followers of Horus; may there be prepared for me a seat in the boat of the Sun on the day of the going forth of the 26 god; and may I be received into the presence of Osiris in the land 28 of triumph!

Eldest son of the womb 2 of Nut, engendered by Seb the Erpat, lord of the crowns of the North and South, lord of the lofty white crown.

As Prince of gods and of men 3 he hath received the crook and the flail and the dignity of his divine fathers.

Let thy heart which is in the mountain of Amenta be content, for thy son Horus is stablished upon thy throne. Through thee the world waxeth green 5 in triumph before the might of Neb-er-tcher.

He leadeth in his train that which is and that which is not yet, in his name 6 Ta-her-seta-nef; he toweth along the earth in triumph in his name Seker.

He is 7 exceeding mighty and most terrible in his name Osiris. He endureth for ever and for ever in his name Un-nefer.

Thy body is of gold, thy head is of azure, and emerald light encircleth thee. O An[8] of millions of years, 10 all-pervading with thy body and beautiful in countenance in Ta-sert.

May there be given unto 16 me loaves of bread in the house of coolness, and 17 offerings of food in Annu, 18 and a homestead for ever in Sekhet-Aru with wheat and barley 20 therefore.

Osiris, the scribe Ani, saith: May there be nothing to resist me at [my] judgment; may there be no opposition to me from the Tchatcha ; may there be no parting of thee from me in the presence of him who keepeth the scales!

Thou art my ka within my body [which] knitteth and strengtheneth my limbs. Mayest thou come forth to the place of happiness to which I am advancing.

Good is it for thee to hear. Thoth, the righteous judge of the great company of the gods who are in the presence of the god Osiris, saith: The heart of Osiris hath in very truth been weighed, and his soul hath stood as a witness for him; it hath been found true by trial in the Great Balance.

There hath not been found any wickedness in him; he hath not wasted the offerings in the temples; he hath not done harm by his deeds; and he uttered no evil reports while he was upon earth.

The great company of the gods reply to Thoth dwelling in Khemennu: Osiris, the scribe Ani, triumphant, is holy and righteous.

He hath not sinned, neither hath he done evil against us. Let it not be given to the devourer Amemet to prevail over him. Meat-offerings and entrance into the presence of the god Osiris shall be granted unto him, together with a homestead for ever in Sekhet-hetepu, as unto the followers of Horus.

My mouth is opened, by mouth is split open by Shu with that iron harpoon of his with which he split open the mouths of the gods. I have put my name in the Upper Egyptian shrine, I [have] made my name to be remembered in the Lower Egyptian shrine, on this night of counting the years and of numbering the months This spell was found in Hermopolis, under the feet of this god.

It was written on a block of mineral of Upper Egypt in the writings of the god himself, and was discovered in the time of [King] Menkaure.

O my heart of my mother! O my heart of my different forms! Do not stand up as a witness against me, do not be opposed to me in the tribunal, do not be hostile to me in the presence of the Keeper of the Balance, for you are my ka which was in my body, the protector who made my members hale.

Go forth to the happy place whereto we speed, do not make my name stink to the Entourage who make men. Do not tell lies about me in the present of the god.

It is indeed well that you should hear! Get back, you dangerous one! The sky encloses the stars, magic encloses its settlements, and my mouth encloses the magic which is in it.

My teeth are a knife, my tusks are the Viper Mountain. Get back, you crocodile of the West! The nau -snake is in my belly, and I have not given myself to you, your flame will not be on me.

My hair is Nu ; my face is Ra ; my eyes are Hathor ; my ears are Wepwawet ; my nose is She who presides over her lotus leaf; my lips are Anubis ; my molars are Selkis ; my incisors are Isis the goddess; my arms are the Ram, the Lord of mendes; my breast is Neith , Lady of Sais; my back is Seth ; my phallus is Osiris ; my muscles are the Lords of Kheraha; my chest is he who is greatly majestic; my belly and my spine are Sekhmet ; my buttocks are the Eye of Horus ; my thighs and my calves are Nut ; my feet are Ptah ; my toes are living falcons; there is no member of mine devoid of a god, and Thoth is the protection of all my flesh.

Some are intended to give the deceased mystical knowledge in the afterlife, or perhaps to identify them with the gods: Still others protect the deceased from various hostile forces or guide him through the underworld past various obstacles.

Famously, two spells also deal with the judgement of the deceased in the Weighing of the Heart ritual. Such spells as 26—30, and sometimes spells 6 and , relate to the heart and were inscribed on scarabs.

The texts and images of the Book of the Dead were magical as well as religious. Magic was as legitimate an activity as praying to the gods, even when the magic was aimed at controlling the gods themselves.

The act of speaking a ritual formula was an act of creation; [20] there is a sense in which action and speech were one and the same thing.

Hieroglyphic script was held to have been invented by the god Thoth , and the hieroglyphs themselves were powerful. Written words conveyed the full force of a spell.

The spells of the Book of the Dead made use of several magical techniques which can also be seen in other areas of Egyptian life.

A number of spells are for magical amulets , which would protect the deceased from harm. In addition to being represented on a Book of the Dead papyrus, these spells appeared on amulets wound into the wrappings of a mummy.

Other items in direct contact with the body in the tomb, such as headrests, were also considered to have amuletic value. Almost every Book of the Dead was unique, containing a different mixture of spells drawn from the corpus of texts available.

For most of the history of the Book of the Dead there was no defined order or structure. The spells in the Book of the Dead depict Egyptian beliefs about the nature of death and the afterlife.

The Book of the Dead is a vital source of information about Egyptian beliefs in this area. One aspect of death was the disintegration of the various kheperu , or modes of existence.

Mummification served to preserve and transform the physical body into sah , an idealised form with divine aspects; [29] the Book of the Dead contained spells aimed at preserving the body of the deceased, which may have been recited during the process of mummification.

The ka , or life-force, remained in the tomb with the dead body, and required sustenance from offerings of food, water and incense.

In case priests or relatives failed to provide these offerings, Spell ensured the ka was satisfied. It was the ba , depicted as a human-headed bird, which could "go forth by day" from the tomb into the world; spells 61 and 89 acted to preserve it.

An akh was a blessed spirit with magical powers who would dwell among the gods. The nature of the afterlife which the dead person enjoyed is difficult to define, because of the differing traditions within Ancient Egyptian religion.

In the Book of the Dead , the dead were taken into the presence of the god Osiris , who was confined to the subterranean Duat.

There are also spells to enable the ba or akh of the dead to join Ra as he travelled the sky in his sun-barque, and help him fight off Apep. There are fields, crops, oxen, people and waterways.

The deceased person is shown encountering the Great Ennead , a group of gods, as well as his or her own parents. While the depiction of the Field of Reeds is pleasant and plentiful, it is also clear that manual labour is required.

For this reason burials included a number of statuettes named shabti , or later ushebti. The path to the afterlife as laid out in the Book of the Dead was a difficult one.

The deceased was required to pass a series of gates, caverns and mounds guarded by supernatural creatures. Their names—for instance, "He who lives on snakes" or "He who dances in blood"—are equally grotesque.

These creatures had to be pacified by reciting the appropriate spells included in the Book of the Dead ; once pacified they posed no further threat, and could even extend their protection to the dead person.

If all the obstacles of the Duat could be negotiated, the deceased would be judged in the "Weighing of the Heart" ritual, depicted in Spell The deceased was led by the god Anubis into the presence of Osiris.

There, the dead person swore that he had not committed any sin from a list of 42 sins , [44] reciting a text known as the "Negative Confession".

Maat was often represented by an ostrich feather, the hieroglyphic sign for her name. If the scales balanced, this meant the deceased had led a good life.

Anubis would take them to Osiris and they would find their place in the afterlife, becoming maa-kheru , meaning "vindicated" or "true of voice".

This scene is remarkable not only for its vividness but as one of the few parts of the Book of the Dead with any explicit moral content.

The judgment of the dead and the Negative Confession were a representation of the conventional moral code which governed Egyptian society. Thus the gods have declared that Ani is "true of voice," as was Osiris, and they have called Ani "Osiris," because in his purity of word and deed he resembled that god.

In all the copies of the Book of the Dead the deceased is always called "Osiris," and as it was always assumed that those for whom they were written would be found innocent when weighed in the Great Balance, the words "true of voice," which were equivalent in meaning to "innocent and acquitted," were always written after their names.

This suggests that the gods did not expect the heart of the deceased to "kick the beam," but were quite satisfied if it exactly counterbalanced Truth.

His heart is righteous [and] hath come forth from the Balance. It hath no sin before any god or any goddess. Thoth hath set down his judgment in writing, and the Company of the Gods have declared on his behalf that [his] evidence is very true.

Let there be given unto him of the bread and beer which appear before Osiris. Let him be like the Followers of Horus for ever! There is no sin in my body.

I have not uttered a lie knowingly. Grant that I may be like the favoured or rewarded ones who are in thy train. When the soul in its beautified or spirit body arrived there, the ministers of Osiris took it to the homestead or place of abode which had been allotted to it by the command of Osiris, and there it began its new existence.

The large vignette to the CXth Chapter shows us exactly what manner of place the abode of the blessed was. The country was flat and the fields were intersected by canals page 31 of running water in which there were "no fish and no worms" i.

In one part of it were several small islands, and on one of them Osiris was supposed to dwell with his saints. It was called the "Island of Truth," and the ferry-man of Osiris would not convey to it any soul that had not been declared "true of word" by Thoth, Osiris and the Great Gods at the "Great Reckoning.

He was introduced into the Sekhet Heteput a section of the Sekhet Aaru, i. One corner of this region was specially set apart for the dwelling place of the aakhu , i.

Near this spot were moored two boats that were always ready for the use of the denizens of that region; they appear to have been "spirit boats," i. Here we see them occupied in producing the celestial food on which they and the god lived.

Some are tending the wheat plants as they grow, and others are reaping the ripe grain. The beautified are described as "Those who have offered up incense to the gods, and whose kau i.

Their truth shall be reckoned to them in the presence of the Great God who destroyeth sin. Take ye your rest because of what ye have done, becoming even as those who are in my following, and who direct the House of Him whose Soul is holy.

Ye shall live there even as they live, and ye shall have dominion over the cool waters of your land. I command that ye have your being to the limit [of that land] with Truth and without sin.

As the Wheat-god he would satisfy those who wished for a purely material, agricultural heaven, where hunger would be unknown and where the blessed would be able to satisfy every physical desire and want daily; and as the God of Truth, of whom the spiritually minded hoped to become the counterpart, he would be their hope, and consolation, and the image of the Eternal God.

This Hymn is supposed to be sung by the deceased, who says: Thou risest, thou risest; thou shinest, thou shinest at the dawn.

The Company of the Gods praise thee at sunrise and at sunset. Thou sailest over the heights of heaven and thy heart is glad. Thy Morning Boat meeteth thy Evening Boat with fair winds.

Thy father is the Sky-god and thy mother is the Sky-goddess, and thou art Horus of the Eastern and Western skies.

O thou Only One, O thou Perfect One, O thou who art eternal, who art never weak, whom no mighty one can abase; none hath dominion over the things which appertain to thee.

Homage to thee in thy characters of Horus, Tem, and Khepera, thou Great Hawk, who makest man to rejoice by thy beautiful face. When thou risest men and women live.

Thou renewest thy youth, and dost page 34 set thyself in the place where thou wast yesterday. O Divine Youth, who art self-created, I cannot comprehend thee.

Thou art the lord of heaven and earth, and didst create beings celestial and beings terrestrial. Thou art the God One, who camest into being in the beginning of time.

Thou didst create the earth, and man, thou didst make the sky and the celestial river Hep; thou didst make the waters and didst give life unto all that therein is.

Thou hast knit together the mountains, thou hast made mankind and the beasts of the field to come into being, and hast made the heavens and the earth.

The fiend Nak is overthrown, his arms are cut off. O thou Divine Youth, thou heir of everlastingness, self-begotten and self-born, One, Might, of myriad forms and aspects, Prince of An i.

As thou risest thou growest greater: Thou art unknowable, and no tongue can describe thy similitude; thou existest alone.

Millions of years have passed over the world, I cannot tell the number of those through which thou hast passed.

Thou journeyest through spaces [requiring] millions of years [to pass over] in one little moment of time, and then thou settest and dost make an end of the hours.

They shout praises of him in his form of Tem i. Thou didst rise and put on strength, and thou settest, a living being, and thy glories are in Amentt.

The gods of Amentt rejoice in thy beauties or beneficence. The hidden ones worship thee, the aged ones bring thee offerings and protect thee. Their eyes follow thee, they press forward to see thee, and their hearts rejoice at the sight of thy face.

Thou hearkenest to the petitions of those who are in their tombs, thou dispellest their helplessness and drivest away evil from them.

Thou givest breath to their nostrils. Thou art greatly feared, thy form is majestic, and very greatly art thou beloved by those who dwell in the Other World.

Thou art the Governor of gods and of men and hast received the sceptre, the whip, and the rank of thy Divine Fathers. Let thy heart in Amentt be content, for thy son Horus is seated upon thy throne.

Thou makest fertile the Two Lands i. Homage to thee, King of kings, Lord of lords, Governor of governors, who from the womb of the Sky-goddess hast ruled the World and the Under World.

Thy limbs are as silver-gold, thy hand is blue like lapis-lazuli, and the space on either side of thee is of the colour of turquoise or emerald. Thou god An of millions of years, thy body is all-pervading, O dweller in the Land of Holiness, thy face is beautiful The gods come before thee bowing low.

They hold thee in fear. Life is with thee. I have come to the City of God, the region that is eternally old, with my soul ba , double ka and spirit-soul aakhu , to be a dweller in this land.

Its God is the Lord of Truth I have come unto thee, my hands hold Truth, and there is no falsehood in my heart Thou hast set Truth before thee: I know on what thou livest.

I have committed no sin in this land, and I have defrauded no man of his possessions. Chapter I was recited by the priest who accompanied the mummy to the tomb and performed the burial ceremonies there.

In it the priest kher heb assumed the character of Thoth and promised the deceased to do for him all that he had done for Osiris in days of old.

Chapters II—IV are short spells written to give the deceased power to revisit the earth, to join the gods, and to travel about the sky.

The text of Chapter VI was cut on figures made of stone, wood, etc. The shabti figure, , took the place of the human funerary sacrifice which was common all over Egypt before the general adoption of the cult of Osiris under the XIIth dynasty.

About ushabtiu figures were found in the tomb of Seti I, and many of them are in the British Museum. Chapter XIV is a prayer in which Osiris is entreated to put away any feeling of dissatisfaction that he may have for the deceased, who says, "Wash away my sins, Lord of Truth; destroy my transgressions, wickedness and iniquity, O God of Truth.

May this god be at peace with me. Destroy the things that are obstacles between us. Give me peace, and remove all dissatisfaction from thy heart in respect of me.

The opening words are, "I am Tem in rising. I am the Only One. I came into being in Nu the Sky. He existed on the height of the Dweller in Khemenu i.

These addresses formed a very powerful spell which was used by Horus, and when he recited it four times all his enemies were overthrown and cut to pieces.

Thoth recited spells over the gods whilst Ptah untied the bandages and Shu forced open their mouths with an iron? Five chapters, XXVI—XXX, contain prayers and spells whereby the deceased page 38 obtained power over his heart and gained absolute possession of it.

This prayer was still in use in the early years of the Christian Era. In Chapter XLII every member of the deceased is put under the protection of, or identified with, a god or goddess, e.

A spell to prevent the decapitation of the deceased, who assumes in it the character of Osiris the Lord of Eternity.

An ancient and mighty spell, the recital of which prevented the deceased from dying a second time. Chapter L enabled the deceased to avoid the block of execution of the god Shesmu.

Chapters LI—LIII provided the deceased with pure food and clean water from the table of the gods; he lived upon what they lived upon, and so became one with them.

Chapters LIV—LXII gave the deceased power to obtain cool water from the Celestial Nile and the springs of waters of heaven, and being identified with Shu, the god of light and air, he was enabled to pass over all the earth at will.

His life was that of the Egg of the "Great Cackler," and the goddess Sesheta built a house for him in the Celestial Anu, or Heliopolis.

The soul visiting the mummified body in the tomb. The bird-goddess at the head is Isis, and that at the feet is Nephthys.

The water in some of its pools was cool and refreshing to those who were speakers of the page 39 truth, but it turned into boiling water and scalded the wicked when they tried to drink of it.

Chapter LXIV is an epitome of the whole Book of the Dead, and it formed a "great and divine protection" for the deceased.

The text is of a mystical character and suggests that the deceased could, through its recital, either absorb the gods into his being, or become himself absorbed by them.

About: Akinos


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